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Typescript advanced

2021-08-26 00:47:28 forever_ Mamba

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“ The color of August is made of gold , Bright and precious ; The color of August is brewed by sunshine , Fragrant and brilliant .”

The days ahead , May you adjust yourself to your best , Work slowly , Slowly getting better Y(^o^)Y

Type the alias

Type aliases are used to give a type a new name , Commonly used for union types

type Name = string;
type NameResolver = () => string;
type NameOrResolver = Name | NameResolver;
function getName(n: NameOrResolver): Name {
    if (typeof n === 'string') {
        return n;
    } else {
        return n();
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String literal type

String literal type is used to restrict that the value can only be one of several strings

type EventNames = 'click' | 'scroll';
function handleEvent(ele: Element, event: EventNames) {
    // todo

handleEvent(document.getElementById('hello'), 'scroll');  //  That's all right. 
handleEvent(document.getElementById('world'), 'dblclick'); //  Report errors ,event  Not for  'dblclick'

// index.ts(7,47): error TS2345: Argument of type '"dblclick"' is not assignable to parameter of type 'EventNames'.
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Type alias and string literal type are both used type Define


Tuples (Tuple) Merging different types of objects

Define a pair of values as string and number tuples .= let tom: [string, number] = ['Tom', 25]; This definition limits the type of each element in the array , in other words tom[0] It has to be for string,tom[1] It has to be for number.

If you add a new out of bounds element to the array , The data type of the new element can be any type of the time ancestor


// Argument of type 'true' is not assignable to parameter of type 'string | number'.
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enumeration (Enum) Type is used for scenarios where the value is limited to a certain range , For example, a week can only have seven days , The color is limited to red, green and blue . Enumerations are usually used to define some keywords .

enum Days {Sun, Mon, Tue, Wed, Thu, Fri, Sat};
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Interface inherits interface

Interface (Interfaces) It can be used for 「 The shape of the object (Shape)」 Describe

Interfaces can be inherited between interfaces

interface Alarm {
    alert(): void;

interface LightableAlarm extends Alarm {
    lightOn(): void;
    lightOff(): void;

LightableAlarm  Inherited  Alarm, Besides having  alert  Out of the way , There are also two new methods  lightOn  and  lightOff
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Generic (Generics) It means defining functions 、 Interface or class , Do not specify specific types in advance , And when you use it, you specify a feature of type

function createArray<T>(length: number, value: T): Array<T> {
    let result: T[] = [];
    for (let i = 0; i < length; i++) {
        result[i] = value;
    return result;

  You can specify its specific type as  string
createArray<string>(3, 'x'); // ['x', 'x', 'x']

  You can not specify it manually , And let the type inference work out automatically 
createArray(3, 'x'); // ['x', 'x', 'x']
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We added... After the function name <T>, among T Used to refer to any type of input , Input at the back value: T And the output Array<T> You can use


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