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Talk about mobile terminal adaptation

2021-08-27 04:40:39 _ Battle

This is my participation 8 The fourth of the yuegengwen challenge 17 God , Check out the activity details :8 Yuegengwen challenge

One 、 introduction

There are two starting points for users to choose a large screen , Some people want bigger Fonts , Bigger picture ; Some people want more content , I don't want a bigger icon ; Some people want a mirror ….

Fully understand various equipment , We will know that screens of different sizes have their own positioning , image ipad Compared with the large screen device itself iphone5 Should have a greater vision , Instead of rudely letting users feel the experience of the elderly machine .

However, due to the shortage of design and development resources , At this stage, only one set of design draft can be applied to multi-size equipment , Therefore, we need to consider how to make the display more reasonable while maintaining a set of design draft .

Two 、 Basic unit

For mobile development , In order to achieve the effect of high-definition page , The specification of visual manuscript often follows the following two points :

  1. First , Select a phone's screen width and height as the benchmark ( It used to be iphone4 Of 320×480, Now more is iphone6 Of 375×667).
  2. about retina The screen ( Such as : dpr=2), In order to achieve HD effect , The canvas size of the visual manuscript will be benchmark 2 times , That is to say, the number of pixels is original 4 times ( Yes iphone6 for : The original 375×667, Will become 750×1334).

Physical pixel (physical pixel)

A physical pixel is a display ( Mobile phone screen ) The smallest physical display unit , Under operating system scheduling , Each device pixel has its own color value and brightness value .

Device independent pixel (density-independent pixel)

Device independent pixel ( Also called density independent pixels ), It can be regarded as a point in the computer coordinate system , This point represents a virtual pixel that can be used by the program ( such as : css Pixels ), And then it's transformed into physical pixels by related systems .

So , There is a certain correspondence between physical pixels and device independent pixels , That's what we're going to talk about next .

DPR Device pixel ratio (device pixel ratio )

Device pixel ratio = Physical pixel / Device independent pixel ; // In a certain direction ,x Direction or y Direction Can be in JS in window.devicePixelRatio Get the... Of the current device dpr

3、 ... and 、 Common layout types

rem Layout

principle : According to the screen size of the phone and dpr, Dynamic modification html The benchmark value of (font-size)

The formula : rem = document.documentElement.clientWidth * dpr / 100

notes : multiply dpr, It's because it's possible for a page to 1px border The page zooms (scale) 1/dpr times ( without ,dpr=1)

Suppose we divide the screen width into 100 Share , The width of each portion is in per Express ,per = Screen width / 100, If you will per As a unit ,per The previous value represents the percentage of screen width

p {width: 50per;} /*  Screen width 50% */
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If you want page elements to change proportionally with the screen width , We need the above per Company , If the child element is set rem Properties of units , By changing html Font size of element , You can change the actual size of the child element

html {font-size: 16px}
p {width: 2rem} /* 32px*/
 
html {font-size: 32px}
p {width: 2rem} /*64px*/
 Copy code 

If you allow html The size of the element font , Equal to the width of the screen 1/100, that 1rem and 1per It's equivalent.

html {fons-size:  Element width  / 100}
p {width: 50rem} /* 50rem = 50per =  Screen width 50% */
 Copy code 

The practical application

rem When acting on non root elements , Relative to the root element font size ;rem When applied to the root element font size , Relative to its initial font size

It can be seen that rem The values can be divided into two cases , Set on root and non root elements , for instance :

/*  Act on the root element , Relative to the original size (16px), therefore html Of font-size by 32px*/
html {font-size: 2rem}
 
/*  Acting on non root elements , Relative to the root element font size , So for 64px */
p {font-size: 2rem}
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for instance :

Design width Element width in design
320px 50px
480px 75px
640px 100px

The proportion of elements in the design draft :100 / 640 = 75 / 480 = 50 / 320 = 15.625

The following table shows the calculated values of elements under different screen widths

Page width html font size (1rem) p Element width
320px 320/100=3.2px 15.625*3.2=50px
480px 480/100=4.8px 15.625*4.8=75px
640px 640/100=6.4px 15.625*6.4=100px

Used in development px Development , The project in css Prior to entry into force px All converted to rem.

vw

vw/vh Is based on Viewport A unit of window length window.innerWidth/window.innerHeight stay CSS Values and Units Module Level 3 neutralization Viewport There are four related units , Respectively vwvhvmin and vmax.

  • vw: yes Viewport’s width Abbreviation , 1vw be equal to window.innerWidth Of 1%
  • vh: and vw similar , yes Viewport’s height Abbreviation ,1vh be equal to window.innerHeihgt Of 1%\
  • vmin:vmin The value of is current vw and vh The smaller value in
  • vmax:vmax The value of is current vw and vh The greater of

image.png You can see vw In fact, it is realized 1vw = 1per, Compared with rem Need to compute html The benchmark value of ,vw Undoubtedly more convenient .

/* rem programme  */
html {fons-size: width / 100}
p {width: 15.625rem}
 
/* vw programme  */
p {width: 15.625vw}
 Copy code 

Q:vw So convenient , Is it better than rem Better , Can completely replace rem What about it ?

A: Of course not. .

vw There are also shortcomings. .

  • vw Conversion is sometimes inaccurate , Smaller pixels don't fit well , Just as we can accurately represent a larger value with a smaller value , If a larger value is used to represent a smaller value, there may be problems such as digit conversion, which cannot be accurately expressed .
  • vw The compatibility is not as good as rem
  • When using elastic layout ,vw Cannot limit maximum width .rem By controlling HTML At baseline , To achieve the maximum width limit .

Q:rem Is it so perfect ?

A:rem It's not everything

  • rem The production cost is greater , Additional plug-ins are needed to implement .
  • Font cannot be used rem, There is no linear relationship between font size and font width , All font sizes cannot be used rem, Because the font size of the root element is set , It will affect all elements without font , Therefore, you need to set all the elements that need font control .
  • In terms of user experience , The comfort of text reading has nothing to do with the size of the media .

Four 、 Adaptation scheme

Scheme 1 : rem/vw

Applicable scenario :

  • There are many kinds of visual components , Visual design depends on the relative relationship of element position, which is a strong mobile page :vw/rem

Example :

  • Are you hungry (h5.ele.me/msite/)
  • Yes viewport Scaled
  • html Elemental font-size Still by px Appoint
  • Use... On the layout of specific elements vw + rem fallbak In the form of
  • There is no limit to the layout width
  • css The build process requires plug-in support

Option two : flex + px + percentage

Applicable scenario :

  • The pursuit of reading experience , Such as the list page .

Example :

  • You know (www.zhihu.com/)
  • The pursuit of reading experience , Use px Layout .
  • tencent (xw.qq.com/)
  • The main content of the home page is news , For a better reading experience , Use px Layout .

Like to support 、 Fragrance in hand 、 And glory , Use your little hand to get rich , Thank you for leaving your footprints .

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