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Advanced tutorial 11. Homology strategy / cross domain

2021-08-27 09:42:32 Heyong

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One 、 The same-origin policy

1.1 What is homology strategy ?

The same-origin policy (Same-origin Policy): In order to ensure the information security of the browser , The browser uses the same origin strategy , Ensure that the resources in the current source can only be used in the current source ; If other sources need to use the current source resource , Need special technology , such A Source access B The communication of source resources is called cross domain communication ;

1.2 Example :

let xhr = new XMLHttpRequest();
xhr.open('GET', 'https://www.baidu.com/', true);
xhr.onreadystatechange = function () {
   if (xhr.readyState === 4 && xhr.status === 200) {
      console.log('xxx')
   }
};
xhr.send();

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  • The above request will report an error :
Access to XMLHttpRequest at 'https://www.baidu.com/' from origin 'http://localhost:63342' has been blocked by CORS policy: No 'Access-Control-Allow-Origin' header is present on the requested resource.
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When the above error occurs, it indicates that you are conducting a cross domain operation ;

1.3 Requirements of homology strategy :

The homology strategy requires the protocol of two sources of communication 、 domain name 、 The port number should be the same , If any of the three is different, it does not meet the homology strategy ; Communication that does not satisfy the same origin policy is cross domain ;

1.4 Common cross domain solutions :

  1. JSONP
  2. Server forwarding , Because the same origin policy exists only on the client , It doesn't exist on the server ; So the server can forward the request ;
  3. nginx forward ,nginx It's a server application , It can accept requests from clients , Automatic forwarding can then be configured according to the rules ;
  4. CORS: Cross-Origin-Resource-Sharing: Target domain settings are required Access-Control-Allow-Origin Header information ;

Two 、JSONP

JSONP It is a common way to solve cross domain problems ;

2.1 principle :

utilize script Of src Attributes are not constrained by the same source policy , You can access data under different servers or port numbers

  1. Declare in advance that one is called fn Function of , to fn Set a formal parameter ;
  2. Give... On the page script Of src The path pointing to splices a callback attribute ,callback=fn; When the browser resolves to this script When labeling , Will send to src The path pointed to http request ;
  3. When the server receives the request , Will return a fn( Here is the data returned by the server )
  4. fn({xxx}) This is let fn perform , Inside the parentheses are the data sent to us by the server

2.2 Example :

JS Code :

function fn(data) {
   console.log(data);
}
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HTML Code

<script src="http://matchweb.sports.qq.com/kbs/calendar?columnId=100000&callback=fn"></script>
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3、 ... and 、CORS

3.1 Definition

CORS: CORS It's a W3C standard , The full name is " Cross-domain resource sharing "(Cross-origin resource sharing). It allows the browser to cross to the source server , issue XMLHttpRequest request , To overcome AJAX It can only be used in the same source .

Use CORS To solve cross domain problems , By agreement HTTP The response header information informs the client of the current cross domain permission , The following header information is common :

  1. Access-Control-Allow-Headers Allowed request headers ,* Express arbitrarily ;
  2. Access-Control-Allow-Methods Methods used in cross domain access , Common methods GET,PUT,POST,DELETE,OPTIONS ;
  3. Access-Control-Allow-Max-Age Set a cache period for cross domain configuration information , such as 10s, identification 10s Don't send it again OPTIONS Request to inquire about cross domain configuration ;
  4. Access-Control-Allow-Credentials, Set whether to allow carrying cookie,true Is it allowed to carry cookie Come on , If you don't set this value , The target source cannot set the client's cookie

3.2 An example

Here is one Nodejs Easy to develop server Code :

const http = require('http');
const fs = require('fs');
const path = require('path')
const url = require('url');


http.createServer((req, res) => {
  let { pathname, query } = url.parse(req.url, true)
  let method = req.method.toUpperCase()
  res.setHeader('Access-Control-Allow-Headers', 'token'); 
  res.setHeader('Access-Control-Allow-Methods', 'GET,PUT,POST,DELETE,OPTIONS'); 
  res.setHeader('Access-Control-Allow-Max-Age', '10'); 
  res.setHeader('Access-Control-Allow-Credentials', true); 

  // res.setHeader()
  if (method === 'OPTIONS') {
    return res.end();
  }
  if (pathname === '/user') {
    switch (method) {
      case 'GET':
        res.end(JSON.stringify({ name: 'ok' }))
        break
      case 'POST':
        let arr = []
        req.on('data', chunk => arr.push(chunk))
        req.on('end', () => {
          let r = Buffer.concat(arr).toString()
          res.setHeader('Set-Cookie', 'a=333333')
          res.end(JSON.stringify({b: 'post'}))
        })
    }
    return
  }

  let filepath = path.join(__dirname, pathname)

  fs.stat(filepath, (err, statObj) => {
    if (err) {
      res.statusCode = 404;
      return res.end('not found')
    }
    if (statObj.isFile()) {
      return fs.createReadStream(filepath).pipe(res)
    }
    res.statusCode = 404;
    res.end('not found')
  })
}).listen(8081, () => {
  console.log('ok 8081')
})
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3.3 matters needing attention

3.3.1 form Forms

form There is no cross domain problem in the submission of forms ,form The submission of can be submitted to any source ;

<form action="http://www.unkown.com/some/path/app.php" method="get">
  <p>First name: <input type="text" name="f_name" /></p>
  <p>Last name: <input type="text" name="l_name" /></p>
  <input type="submit" value="Submit" />
</form>
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3.3.2 Complex requests and OPTIONS

When the browser recognizes that this is a cross domain behavior , If the request is a complex request, a OPTIONS request , Ask the server whether cross domain and other related configurations are allowed ;

GET/POST It's all simple requests , If the request contains a custom request header, it will become a complex request , At this time, the browser automatically sends OPTIONS request , And then get the correct CORS Only after the response will the real request be initiated . If the server OPTIONS The request did not return , Or the return is incorrect , It will not reply to sending the real request and throw the error of homology policy restriction ;

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